Leadership, management, and directing are broad concepts that involve guiding and overseeing individuals or groups toward achieving organizational goals. While each concept has its unique focus, they are interrelated and essential for effective organizational functioning and achieving success.

Traditional managerial categories and short explanation:

  1. Planning: Planning involves setting goals, objectives, and strategies for achieving organizational success. Managers engage in strategic planning to define long-term objectives and develop plans to achieve them. They also engage in operational planning to outline specific actions and tasks required to implement strategies effectively. Planning encompasses forecasting, setting budgets, and allocating resources to support organizational goals.

  2. Organizing: Organizing entails arranging resources and activities to accomplish organizational objectives efficiently. Managers structure the organization by dividing work into manageable tasks, establishing reporting relationships, and defining roles and responsibilities. They also design systems and processes to coordinate activities, facilitate communication, and promote collaboration among employees.

  3. Leading: Leading involves inspiring, motivating, and influencing employees to achieve their full potential and contribute to organizational success. Managers provide direction and guidance, set a positive example, and create a supportive work environment conducive to employee engagement and productivity. They also foster teamwork, build relationships, and communicate effectively to align individual and team efforts with organizational goals.

  4. Coordinating: Coordinating involves integrating and harmonizing activities across different departments or functions within the organization. Managers ensure that various parts of the organization work together smoothly to achieve common objectives. They facilitate communication, resolve conflicts, and promote collaboration among departments to maximize efficiency and effectiveness.

  5. Decision-making: Decision-making entails making choices and solving problems to address organizational challenges and opportunities. Managers analyze information, evaluate alternatives, and make decisions that align with organizational goals and objectives. They also consider the potential impact of decisions on stakeholders and implement strategies to manage risks effectively.

  6. Monitoring: Monitoring involves tracking performance and progress toward achieving organizational goals. Managers collect data, measure performance against established standards, and identify deviations or areas for improvement. They use performance metrics and key performance indicators (KPIs) to assess progress, make informed decisions, and take corrective action as needed to keep the organization on track.

  7. Evaluating: Evaluating involves assessing the effectiveness of organizational strategies, processes, and initiatives. Managers conduct performance evaluations, analyze outcomes, and identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis). They use evaluation results to inform future planning, make adjustments to organizational activities, and continuously improve performance and efficiency.

These managerial categories complement the core functions of controlling, resourcing, and directing, providing a comprehensive framework for effective management and leadership within organizations.

Mindfindr and Leadership

Neglecting the diverse conceptualization of management or managerialism, Mindfindr has instead focused on the concept of leadership. Mindfindr employs the term “leadership” as a framework that prioritizes human factors and human resources. This approach emphasizes the importance of understanding and leveraging individual strengths, abilities, and potential contributions within an organization to drive effective leadership and organizational success.

As a dimension of the leadership concept, Mindfindr also considers aspects such as working as a supervisor and interest in holding leader positions. This highlights the broader scope of leadership assessment, encompassing not only leadership behaviors but also aspirations and potential roles within the organizational hierarchy (eg. team leader or temporary leader).

Leadership Assessment Framework

In Mindfindr context leadership is categorized into three sections: General Leadership Inclination, Leadership Type, and Leadership Style. Additionally, Mindfindr includes numerous managerial occupations within its scope (See section: Occupations, Occupation list).

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Image #1: Miindfindr leadership context

Leadership inclination represents an overarching index measuring an individual’s general propensity or readiness for leadership roles.

When considering one’s suitability for and interest in assuming leadership roles it is worth noting that this general leadership index has reservations in its interpretation. Persons with minimal or very mild general leadership tendencies may have traits and competencies that make them for instance good coaches, experts or developmental leaders.

Mindfindr reports include leadership type and leadership style descriptions. The four leadership types are process leadership, results-oriented leadership, developmental leadership and change leadership. Leadership style showing the relative strength of eight different leadership styles that are illustrated with graphs and definitions.

A respondent may utilize the report to further develop oneself as a leader or an expert. In organizational usage reports help to develop, recruit and allocate human resources optimally. At the topmost level in organizations reports facilitate planning executive coaching processes and support in sharing responsibilities and defining roles in executive boards.

Leadership styles and types characterize how an individual may inspire, motivate, and guide others towards shared goals and objectives. Understanding and leveraging these individual attributes contribute significantly to personal and professional growth in the workplace.

By understanding leaders’ personality profiles, organizations can enhance leadership development programs, succession planning, and team alignment strategies to drive business success and foster a positive organizational culture.

Leadership Inclination

The Mindfindr leadership index is based on the answers given by the participant and it yields a general prediction of the probability that the participant would succeed in or find meaningful a position as a leader when leadership is defined very largely. Defined in this manner any leadership position is considered covering such regular and continuous activities requiring social presence as leading people, administratively planning and organizing things as well as monitoring and supervising their implementation.

Personality descriptions produced by Mindfindr also bring up many inborn strengths among participants enabling them to take leadership roles in various social everyday encounters and situations. These strengths are related in varying ways to different personalities, and they should be considered separately from the more official or formal professional leadership roles defined above. It may be possible for a participant to take the role of a temporary leader in other arenas of life while not finding it meaningful or interesting to function in a more formal fulltime leadership position.

The results of the Mindfindr test indicate that only a small percentage of participants are recommended for leadership roles. This underscores the purpose of the Mindfindr service, which aims to effectively distinguish individuals with inherent leadership qualities from those who may not possess them. By identifying and highlighting these potential leaders, organizations can make more informed decisions about assigning leadership responsibilities and fostering the growth

Leadership Types

In the realm of psychological testing, leadership assessments have become increasingly prominent in identifying and understanding different leadership styles. Among these assessments, four key leadership types have emerged: process leadership, results-oriented leadership, developmental leadership, and change leadership. Each type embodies unique characteristics and approaches to leading teams and organizations.

Process leadership focuses on the methods and procedures involved in achieving goals. Leaders of this type excel in managing workflows, coordinating tasks, and ensuring efficiency in operations. They prioritize structured approaches and emphasize adherence to established processes to drive success.

Results-oriented leadership centers on achieving tangible outcomes and driving performance. Leaders in this category are highly goal-oriented, focusing on delivering measurable results and driving bottom-line impact. They are adept at setting ambitious targets, motivating teams, and holding individuals accountable for achieving objectives.

Developmental leadership emphasizes the growth and development of team members. Leaders of this type prioritize mentorship, coaching, and skills development to empower individuals to reach their full potential. They foster a supportive environment where learning and continuous improvement are encouraged, driving personal and professional growth among team members.

Change leadership is characterized by the ability to navigate and lead through periods of transition and transformation. Leaders in this category excel in driving organizational change, managing uncertainty, and inspiring others to embrace new ways of thinking and working. They possess strong communication skills, vision, and adaptability, enabling them to guide teams through challenging transitions effectively.

Each leadership type offers unique strengths and challenges, and individuals may exhibit traits from multiple categories. Psychological testing allows for the identification and assessment of these leadership types, enabling organizations to better understand their leadership dynamics and make informed decisions about talent development, succession planning, and team composition.

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Image #2: Mindfindr leadership type UI view

Case #1: John’s difficulties in mobilizing his team.

In his role as a leader overseeing an innovative product project, John faces challenges in embodying the role of a Developmental Leader and an Innovative Mobiliser.

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Image #3: John’s leadership type

John excels in driving innovation and fostering creativity within his team. He consistently generates and implements new ideas, encourages experimentation, and pushes the boundaries of conventional thinking to drive the project forward. His visionary approach inspires enthusiasm and excitement among team members, fostering a culture of innovation and exploration.

However, John encounters difficulties in mobilizing and developing his team members to fully embrace and execute innovative ideas. While he excels in generating creative solutions himself, he struggles to effectively empower and mobilize his team to contribute their own innovative insights and take ownership of the project. John may overlook opportunities to nurture the talents and potential of his team members, leading to underutilization of their skills and a lack of collective ownership over the project’s success.

To address these challenges, John could benefit from focusing on developing his skills as a developmental leader and innovative mobilizer. This involves creating opportunities for team members to contribute their ideas, providing support and resources to help them develop their innovative capabilities, and fostering a culture of collaboration and learning. By empowering his team members to take ownership of their ideas and contributions, John can leverage their diverse perspectives and talents to drive the project forward more effectively while also nurturing their professional growth and development.

Leadership Styles

The analysis may be used to gauge leadership qualities of a coached person at the start of a coaching process, or to find out what kinds of leadership perspectives are potentially underrepresented among an executive board.

When considering a person’s suitability and motivation especially for leadership and managerial positions it is worth taking into consideration the person’s potential leaning towards various leadership and managerial styles, besides the overall estimate of the strength of this tendency.

The leadership types and styles described and illustrated in Mindfindr reports may be concisely defined as follows:

Process leaders upkeep and facilitate practical operations close to people

  • The Empathetic Maintainer (Stabilizing)
  • The Participating Supporter (Supportive)

Results-oriented leaders pay attention to concrete results and efficiency

  • The Resolute Implementer (Implementing)
  • The Participating Problem Solver (Resolving)

Developmental leaders facilitate the development of people and practises

  • The Visionary Facilitator (Facilitating)
  • The Inspiring Coach (Coaching)

Change leaders create and implement strategies based on analysis

  • The Strategic Implementer (Strategical)
  • The Analytic Pioneer (Analytical)
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Image #4: Mindfindr leadership styles UI view
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Image #5: Mindfindr leadership styles descriptions UI view

Case #2: Strategic Implementer

Strategic implementers are efficient at creating a comprehensive overall situational picture in complicated operational environments and finding optional paths to their goals, thanks to their strong innate rational abstraction capacity.

As self-disciplined persons they persistently implement the required operations derived from the strategies of their own design. Seeing clearly both the future objectives and optional routes there, strategic implementers may become impatient with people unable to realize the visions efficiently enough, often disregarding practical and human limitations. Even though being diplomatic to the core, strategic implementers may, due to their strong drive to accomplish at times come on as distant and harsh.

As leaders they benefit from developing emotional competence. As managers they are wise to have around such board members or groups of colleagues who are courageous enough to question and test their decisions so as not to ignore practicalities and to help concretize staging points on the way to the destination.


Sarah, a seasoned executive leading a fast-paced technology firm. With her sharp analytical skills and innate ability to envision complex scenarios, Sarah embodies the archetype of a strategic implementer.

In a recent strategic planning meeting, Sarah meticulously outlined the company’s future objectives and devised multiple pathways to achieve them. Her rational abstraction capacity allowed her to grasp the nuances of the industry landscape and foresee potential challenges and opportunities.

As a self-disciplined individual, Sarah ensured that the team executed the strategies flawlessly. She set clear expectations and held everyone accountable for their roles in the implementation process. However, her high standards sometimes led her to be impatient with team members who couldn’t keep up with her vision’s pace.

While Sarah valued diplomacy, her relentless drive to achieve goals occasionally made her appear distant and harsh. She recognized the importance of emotional competence in leadership and actively worked on developing her empathy and interpersonal skills.

As a leader, Sarah understood the value of surrounding herself with colleagues who challenged her decisions and tested her strategies. She welcomed constructive criticism and diverse perspectives, knowing that it was crucial to consider practicalities and ensure the feasibility of their plans.

Case #3: Inspiring coach style with good resilience

In his leadership role, Bill embodies The Inspiring Coach style, characterized by his ability to motivate, guide, and empower his team members, coupled with strong resilience.

IMAGE: Image #6: Bill’s leadership styles and working styles profile

Bill excels in inspiring and energizing his team, fostering a sense of purpose and direction that aligns with the organization’s goals and values. He leads by example, demonstrating passion, enthusiasm, and a clear vision for success. Bill effectively communicates his expectations, goals, and aspirations, inspiring his team members to strive for excellence and pursue their full potential.

Moreover, Bill possesses a keen understanding of his team members’ strengths, weaknesses, and developmental needs. He adopts a coaching approach, providing constructive feedback, mentorship, and guidance to help individuals unlock their talents and overcome challenges. Bill’s supportive leadership style fosters a culture of trust, collaboration, and continuous improvement within the team.

In addition to his coaching abilities, Bill demonstrates strong resilience in the face of adversity. He remains calm, composed, and optimistic, even in challenging circumstances. Bill effectively navigates setbacks, obstacles, and uncertainties, maintaining a positive attitude and leading his team with confidence and determination.

Bill’s leadership style as The Inspiring Coach, combined with his resilience, enables him to cultivate a highly motivated and high-performing team. His ability to inspire, empower, and support his team members fosters a culture of growth, innovation, and success, ultimately driving positive outcomes for the organization as a whole.

Case #4: Strong leadership but challenges with linguistic competence

In leadership roles, Bruce embodies the leadership style of a Strategic Implementer, while Matt embodies that of an Empathic Maintainer. Despite their strong leadership styles, both Bruce and Matt face challenges with linguistic competence.

IMAGE: Image #7: Bruce’s and Matt’s leadership styles

Bruce excels in strategic planning, execution, and achieving results. He has a knack for setting clear objectives, devising actionable plans, and mobilizing resources to drive projects forward. Bruce is adept at analyzing complex situations, identifying opportunities, and making decisions that align with the organization’s goals. However, he struggles with effectively communicating his ideas and strategies due to poor linguistic competency. His difficulty in articulating thoughts and conveying information may hinder collaboration and alignment within the team.

On the other hand, Matt is known for his empathetic leadership style, fostering a supportive and inclusive work environment. He prioritizes the well-being and morale of his team members, actively listening to their concerns, providing encouragement, and offering assistance when needed. Matt’s ability to connect with others on an emotional level fosters trust, loyalty, and camaraderie within the team. Nevertheless, his challenges with linguistic competency may hinder his ability to communicate expectations, provide feedback, or convey important information clearly and effectively.

To address these challenges, Bruce and Matt could benefit from investing in communication training or seeking assistance from colleagues or mentors with strong linguistic skills. By improving their ability to communicate verbally and in writing, they can enhance their effectiveness as leaders, facilitate better understanding and collaboration within their teams, and ultimately drive improved outcomes for their respective projects and organizations.